Renewable Energy Policy References


International Energy Agency (IEA)/International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Global Renewable Energy Joint Policies and Measures Database. A comprehensive database of renewable energy policies around the world. Can be searched by policy type. Also provides technology targets.

European Commission - Renewable Energy. Keeps track of the evolution of the energy policy framework related to the EU Member States' renewable energy targets, as well as the progresses made towards the goals set.

RES LEGAL Europe. An initiative of the European Commission, is a database on support schemes, grid issues and policies regarding renewables in the EU Member States and EFTA countries, as well as in some EU Accession Countries. Covers all energy sectors.

Information on Renewable Energy in Central and Eastern Europe ( by the Austrian Energy Agency. Good summaries of existing and emerging policies in the CEE region.

Database of (U.S.) State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). A comprehensive source of information on incentives and policies that support renewables aned energy efficiency in the United States. Provides good overviews, summary maps and tables.

US Interstate Renewable Enregy Council. Publishes a number of reports on renewable energy trends in the US, with policy tracking and analysis.

Renewable Energy Policy Publications by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Electricity Markets and Policy Group. A large number of high-quality publications analyzing U.S. renewable energy policies, particularly at the state level.

Clean Energy States Alliance Resource Library. Offers a number of publications on renewable energy policies in the United States.

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Present Status and Promotion Measures for the Introduction of Renewable Energy in Japan. Reports the present status and promotion measures for the introduction of renewable energy in Japan.

Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database. A repository of all central and state government policies, incentives, and programs related to renewable energy and energy efficiency in India.

Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century Interactive Map. Provides renewable energy information such as policies and targets which can be searched by technology, sector, and country.

Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership Policy Database. Offers a comprehensive policy and regulatory overview covering 190 countries.

ECN Energy Policy Studies. Many good studies on energy policy experience, design, and future prospects. Can be searched by document type, unit, or cluster. Sorted by year.


The IEA and IRENA have produced a large number of publications related to renewable energy policy in recent years, including these comprehensive books and reports:


Enabling Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies: Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (2015)

The Power of Transformation - Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems (2014)

Linking Heat and Electricity Systems: Co-generation and District Heating and Cooling, Solutions for a Clean Energy Future (2014)

Heating Without Global Warming: Market Developments and Policy Considerations for Renewable Heat (2014)

Energy Policy Highlights (2013)

Policies for Renewable Heat: An integrated approach (2012)

Deploying Renewables: Best and future policy practice (2011)

Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables (2011)

Interactions of Policies for Renewable Energy and Climate (2011)

Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future (2011)

Harnessing Variable Renewables (2011)

Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials (2010)

Cities, Towns and Renewable Energy: Yes in my front yard (2009)

Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies (2008)

Empowering Variable Renewables - Options for Flexible Electricity Systems (2008)

Renewables for Heating and Cooling (2007)


Renewable Energy Auctions: A Guide to Design (2015)

Renewable Energy Target Setting (2015)

Renewable Energy in Latin America 2015: An Overview of Policies (2015)

Solar Heat for Industrial Processes (2015)

Renewable Energy Technology Innovation Policy: A process development guide (2015)

Adapting Renewable Energy Policies To Dynamic Market Conditions (2014)

Evaluating Renewable Energy Policy: A Review of Criteria and Indicators for Assessment (2014)

Renewable Energy Auctions in Developing Countries (2013)

Renewable Energy Innovation Policy: Success Criteria and Strategies (2013)

Renewable Energy Policy in Cities: Selected Case Studies (2013)

30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy: Lessons from 12 Wind Energy Markets (2013)

Policy Challenges for Renewable Energy Deployment in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (2012)

Evaluating policies in support of the deployment of renewable power (2012)

Renewable Energy Jobs: Status, Prospects & Policies (2012)


2030 Energy Strategy, European Commission. EU countries have agreed on a new 2030 Framework for climate and energy, including EU-wide targets and policy objectives for the period between 2020 and 2030. Related documents can be downloaded from this page.

RES-E-NEXT: Next generation policy instruments for renewable heating and cooling in the commercial sector, N. Veilleux, W. Rickerson, et al.; Meister Consultants Group (Utrecht, Netherlands: prepared for the International Energy Agency-Renewable Energy Technology Deployment, 2015),86 pp. Analyzes current patterns of use of renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in the commercial sector and provides evidence-based policy recommendations. Focuses on existing buildings.

RE-ValuePolicies: Policy Instruments to Support RE Industrial Value Chain Development, U. Lehr, B. Breitschopf & G. Vidican; GWS/Fraunhofer ISI/German Development Institute (Utrecht, Netherlands: prepared for the International Energy Agency-Renewable Energy Technology Deployment, 2014), 118 pp. Gives insight in the key factors in renewable energy value creation, and presents a wide set of policy instruments for value creation which can be used to complement the currently used set of policies in order to enable countries to maximise the economic benefits of the further development of the renewable energy industry.

RE-InnovationChain: Best Practice Innovation Policy for Emerging Renewable Energy Technologies, B. Murphy, T. Jennings et al.; The Carbon Trust/Element Energy (Utrecht, Netherlands: prepared for the International Energy Agency-Renewable Energy Technology Deployment, 2014), 140 pp. Looks into best practice innovation policy for emerging renewable energy technologies, and presents international best practice for strategic innovation policy delivery, synthesising proven methods from around the world. It also makes new recommendations to improve the delivery of on-going policy tools, focusing on reducing risk for private sector investment earlier along the innovation chain, and pursuing an increasingly international innovation policy.

RE-PROSUMERS: Residential Prosumers ? Drivers and Policy Options, W. Rickerson, et al. (Meister Consultants Group)/T. Couture (E3 Analytics)/G. Barbose (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)/D. Jacobs (Institute of Advanced Sustainability Studies)/G. Parkinson (Renew Economy) (Utrecht, Netherlands: prepared for the International Energy Agency-Renewable Energy Technology Deployment, 2014), 132 pp. .

RES-E-NEXT: Next Generation of RES-E Policy Instruments, M. Miller, L. Bird, J. Cochran, M. Milligan, and M. Bazilian (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)/E. Denny, J. Dillon, J. Bialek, and M. O'Malley (Ecar Limited)/K. Neuhoff (Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung Berlin) (Boulder, CO/Ireland/Berlin: prepared for the International Energy Agency-Renewable Energy Technology Deployment, 2013), 102 pp. Presents a comprehensive assessment of the issues that will shape the power system evolution during the transition to high levels of variable renewable sources. The scope of the report extends beyond policy considerations to include the related domains of regulation, power market design, and system operation protocols.

The Policy Climate, Climate Policy Initiative (San Francisco, 2013), 118 pp. Offers an overview of policy issues relevant to climate change across the world by focusing on Brazil, China, India, Europe, and the United States, and the economic sectors that represent the greatest potential for greenhouse gas mitigation within each of these regions.

Hat-trick 2030: an integrated climate and energy framework, European Renewable Energy Council (Brussels, 2013), 24 pp. Sets out reasons why an integrated renewables - greenhouse gas - energy efficiency 2030 policy approach with an ambitious and binding renewable energy target yields more benefits to Europe than a policy based on a "technology-neutral" GHG-only approach.

From vision to action: a workshop report on 100% Renewable Energies in European Regions, Climate Service Center, Renewables 100 Policy Institute, and World Future Council (Hamburg, 2013), 40 pp. Intends to serve as a handbook for European policy makers willing to pursue 100% renewable energy targets.

Effectiveness of Policies and Strategies to Increase the Capacity Utilisation of Intermittent Renewable Power Plants, David Benatia, Nick Johnstone, Ivan Hascic (OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 57, 2013), 50 pp. Presents evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies and measures to increase the capacity utilisation of variable renewables. Notably; transmission capacity and energy storage are found to have positive and significant impacts on capacity utilisation.

A New EU Energy Technology Policy towards 2050: Which Way to Go?, Sophia Ruester, Matthias Finger, Sebastian Schwenen, Adeline Lassource, and Jean-Michel Glachant (European University Institute, Firenze, Italy, 2013). Develops and discusses possible paths for a renewed EU energy technology policy towards 2050.

Linking Renewable Energy to Rural Development, Organisation for Economic-co-operation and Development (Paris, 2012), 348 pp. Assesses the economic impacts of renewable energy policies on rural regions where deployment of projects takes place. Through case studies the report finds that while renewables represent an opportunity for stimulating economic growth in rural communities, benefits are not automatic, and that realizing them requires a complex and flexible policy framework and a long-term strategy.

Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation Special Report - Chapter 11: Policy, Financing and Implementation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge/New York, NY, 2011), 1075 pp. Examines the options available for polycimakers and the role of policies in advancing renewable energy.

Policies for the future: 2011 Assessment of country energy and climate policies, World Energy Council and Oliver Wyman (London, 2011), 80 pp. Aims to identify key areas for policy improvements and understand how successful policies can be transferred from one country to another.

Greening Household Behaviour: The Role of Public Policy, Organisation for Economic-co-operation and Development (Paris, 2011), 192 pp. Notably looks at the effect of measures available to policy makers to promote the use of renewable energy, and examines how much more households are willing to pay to use renewable energy.

Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in the United States, Organisation for Economic-co-operation and Development (Paris, 2011), 215 pp. Notably examines biofuels policies in the United States, including the specific provisions of the 2008 Farm Act.


Support Schemes for Renewable Energy: A Comparative Analysis of Payment Mechanisms in the EU, European Wind Energy Association (Brussels, 2005).

Review of international experience with renewable energy obligation support mechanisms, Linden, N.H. van der; Uyterlinde, M.A. (ECN, Petten (Netherlands)); Vrolijk, C.; Ericsson, K.; Khan, J.; Nilsson, L.J.; Astrand, K.; Wiser, R. ECN-C--05-025 (May 2005).

Renewable Energy Markets and Policies in the United States, Eric Martinot, Ryan Wiser, and Jan Hamrin (Center for Resource Solutions, San Francisco, 2005).

Policy Review of Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency in the European Union and its Member States, EAEF (EC-ASEAN Energy Facility). Report from Project 62- 2003: Capacity Building in Formulating Harmonised Policy Instruments for the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in the ASEAN Member Countries. Publication EuropeAid/116832/D/G/Multi (2005).

Handbook of Renewable Energies in the European Union: Case Studies of the EU-15 States, Danyel Reiche, ed. (Peter Lang Publishing, Bern, Germany, 2005), 330 pp.

Renewable Energy: Market and Policy Trends in IEA Countries, International Energy Agency (Paris, 2004), 668 pp. This reference compendium is the most comprehensive view of renewable energy ever produced for the 26 IEA member countries. For each country, it provides a summary of renewable energy market status, energy supply contribution, R&D trends, market and policy trends, and a chronological description of the policies that have affected renewable energy. Also contains a 60-page overview of these same topics for the group of IEA countries as a whole.

Renewable energy policies and barriers, Fred Beck and Eric Martinot, Encyclopedia of Energy (Academic Press/Elsevier Science, San Diego, 2004).

National Policy Instruments: Policy Lessons for the Advancement & Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies Around the World, Janet L. Sawin and Christopher Flavin. Thematic Background Paper for the 2004 International Renewable Energy Conference, Bonn, Germany, January 2004.

Policies for renewable energy in the European Union and its member states: an overview, T. Johansson and W. Turkenburg. Energy for Sustainable Development 8(1): 5-24 (2004).

Renewable Energy Policy, Paul Komar (Diebold Institute for Public Policy Studies, New York, 2004), 182 pp. Policies in the EU and US and analysis of what has worked and what has not.

Renewable Energy in Europe: Building Markets and Capacity, European Renewable Energy Council EREC, Brussels (James and James, London, 2004), 202 pp. Technology developments, R&D, markets, costs, employment, and industry, sorted by technology.

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: The Share of Renewable Energy in the EU, Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (Brussels, 2004). Description of existing policy targets and progress achieved.

The Share of Renewable Energy in the EU: Country Profiles, Commission of the European Communities (Brussels, 2004). Overview of renewable energy sources in the enlarged European Union.

Energy-policy Framework Conditions for Electricity Markets and Renewable Energies:21 Country Analyses, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH (Eschborn, Germany, 2004).

Energy Revolution: Policies for a Sustainable Future, Howard Geller (Island Press, 2003), 289 pp.

Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments (ECN, Petten, Netherlands, 2003).

Review of renewable energy development in Europe and the US, T. Stenzel, T. Foxon, and R. Gross (UK Department of Trade and Industry, 2003). A report for the DTI Renewables Innovation Review October 2003, ICCEPT.

Renewables in Russia, International Energy Agency (Paris, 2003), 120 pp. Renewable energy market opportunities, prospects, benefits, and overall context.

Germany's Solar Success - the 100,000 roofs programme reviewed, J.K. Dobelmann. Renewable Energy World 6(6): 68-79 (2003).

Renewable Energy...into the Mainstream, International Energy Agency (Paris, 2002), 53 pp. Basic introduction to renewable energy and its benefits.

Innovation, Renewable Energy, and State Investment: Case Studies of Leading Clean Energy Funds, Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger, Lewis Milford, Kevin Porter, and Roger Clark, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report LBNL-51493 (Berkeley, CA, 2002), 144 pp.

Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy, S. Gouchoe, V. Everette, and R. Haynes, NREL/SR-620-32819 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 2002), 128 pp.

Environmental Policy: Renewable Energy--Current German and European Legislation and More. Publication 6108. German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (2002), 69 pp.

States emerge as clean energy investors: a review of state support for renewable energy, Mark Bolinger, Ryan Wiser, Lew Milford, Michael Stoddard, and Kevin Porter, The Electricity Journal, Nov. 2001, pp.82-95. Full report by the same authors: Clean Energy Funds: an Overview of State Support for Renewable Energy (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 2001), 121 pp.

The Role of Government in the Development and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies: Wind Power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany. Janet Sawin, PhD Dissertation, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tuft University (Ann Arbor: UMI/Proquest, 2001), 618 pp. A nice summary of some of this research, including updates, is available in the chapter "Charting a New Energy Future" by Janet Sawin in State of the World 2003 by Worldwatch Institute.

Natural Selection: Evolving Choices for Renewable Energy Technology and Policy, United Nations Environment Programme (Paris, 2000), 36 pp. Basic introduction to technologies and policy options.


UNECE Renewable Energy Status Report, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century/United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (Paris, 2015), 90 pp. provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends, as well as information on energy efficiency in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe region.

SADC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century/United Nations Industrial Development Organization/Southern African Development Community (Paris, 2015), 98 pp. provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends, as well as information on energy efficiency in the Southern African Development Community region.

ECOWAS Renewable Energy Policy, ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (Cape Verde, 2015), 82 pp. Aims to secure an increasing and comprehensive share of the Member States' energy supplies and services from timely, reliable, sufficient, cost-effective uses of renewable energy sources.

ECOWAS Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century/United Nations Industrial Development Organization/ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (Paris, 2014), 92 pp. provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends, as well as information on energy efficiency in the Economic Community of West African States region.

Renewable Energy Promotion Policies, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Singapore, 2013), 110 pp. Aims to direct international experiences and knowledge obtained from the application of renewable energy policies to APEC's developing economies.

MENA Renewables Status Report, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century/International Renewable Energy Agency/Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the United Arab Emirates (Paris, 2013), 40 pp. provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Arab Environment Sustainable Energy 6: Prospects, Challenges, Opportunities, Arab Forum for Environment and Development (Beirut, 2013), 217 pp. Aims at presenting a situational analysis of the current state of energy in the Arab region, shedding light on major challenges, discussing different policy options and, ultimately, recommending alternative courses of action to help facilitate the transition to a sustainable energy future. Chapter 3 of the report is entirely dedicated to renewable energy.

Renewable Energies in the Middle East and North Africa: Policies to Support Private Investment, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Paris, 2013), 132 pp. Identifies appropriated support policies to stimulate private investment towards renewable energy in the Middle East and North Africa region.

AfDB Group Energy Sector Policy, African Development Bank (Tunis, 2012), 52 pp. Provides a general framework for the AfDB's energy sector operations, and an overview of its actions in the renewable energy field.

Renewable energy markets in developing countries, Eric Martinot, Akanksha Chaurey, Debra Lew, Jose Roberto Moreira, and Njeri Wamukonya, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 27: 309-348 (2002).

Biomass energy in Asia: a review of status, technologies and policies in Asia, S.C. Bhattacharya. Energy for Sustainable Development 6(3): 5-10 (2002).

Global electric power reform, privatization, and liberalization of the electric power industry in developing countries, R.W. Bacon and J. Besant-Jones. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 26: 331-59 (2001). Good discussion of power sector reform context affecting renewable energy prospects.


Energy Subsidy Reform: Lessons and Implications, International monetary Fund (Washington DC, 2013), 68 pp. Provides comprehensive estimates of energy subsidies and an analysis of "how to do" energy subsidy reform.

Fuel Facts, Governments Should Phase Out Fossil Fuel Subsidies or Risk Lower Economic Growth, Delayed Investment in Clean Energy and Unnecessary Climate Change Pollution, Natural Resources Defense Council (New York, 2012), 4 pp. Advocates and justifies the phase out of fossil fuel subsidies, and provides recommendations on how to do so.

Earthtrack has a comprehensive set of references on energy subsidies and estimates from around the world.

Reforming Energy Subsidies, UN Environment Program and International Energy Agency (Paris, 2002), 31 pp. Subtitle: "An explanatory summary of the issues and challenges in removing or modifying subsidies on energy that undermine the pursuit of sustainable development." Describes the different types of energy subsidies and recommendations for reform. Total energy subsidies for fossil fuels on a global basis are suggested in the range of $150-250 billion per year.

Energy subsidies in the European Union: A Brief Overview, European Environment Agency (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004), 20 pp. Includes overview of renewable energy policies and subsidies.

Federal Energy Subsidies: Not All Technologies Are Created Equal, M. Goldberg, Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) Research Report No. 11. (REPP, Washington, 2000).


Green power web sites include U.S. Department of Energy's Green Power Network site.

Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eleventh Edition), Lori Bird, Claire Kreycik, and Barry Friedman, NREL/TP-6A2-44094 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 2008).

Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends, L. Bird, R. Wustenhagen, and J. Aabakken, NREL/TP-620-32155 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 2002).

Clean Energy Blueprint: A Smarter Energy Policy for Today and the Future, Steven Clemmer et al. (Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA, 2001), 52 pp.

Page updated February 13, 2016